Rocks Roads Ripples N'At:
Pittsburgh's Civil Engineering News Blog
By John Allison, Repost from Pittsburgh Quarterly
Without civil engineers, our world would fall apart. They are hidden brains behind what we civilians take for granted — all the marvelous methods for getting us from here to there, safe and sound. To observe its 100th anniversary, the Pittsburgh section of the American Society of Engineers has produced an indispensable survey of what has been built around here since, oh, 1681. Helpfully illustrated with maps and lush black-and-white photos, it starts with borders for Pennsylvania’s charter and takes us all the way to Uber’s self-driving vehicles, born out of Carnegie Mellon’s Robotics Institute.
The subtitle promises the history of roads, rails, canals and bridges. The “more” is even longer: the formation of Pennsylvania’s borders, public transportation, airports and aviation, drinking water and wastewater, navigation and flood control. The 16 contributing authors are either professional engineers or communications officers from the field. They have all struck a fine balance, giving the reader detailed information and history but not in excruciating detail. This is the best kind of coffee table book. You can pick up a chapter and read one passage, and find out something you are surprised to know by the time your coffee is finished.
Such as: How many bridges are in the city of Pittsburgh? This popular bar trivia question is answered with precision: 370 … to 700. “The total depends on the specific definition of a ‘bridge,’ ” which might sound like a Bill Clintonian answer, but it’s complicated. It’s 370 by “engineering standards,” and 700 if you count ramps, minor structures less than 20 feet, and other crossings that might be considered bridges to the amateur eye. “Any way you count it,” concludes the writer Todd Wilson, P.E., “there are a lot of bridges.” As I said, this book ends up serving the general audience.
Other various stuff I didn’t know: There used to be a 1 million gallon reservoir Downtown where the Allegheny County Courthouse is located today. (To be fair, “used to be” means 1828, way before Downtown had swank.) The first proposal for the University of Pittsburgh’s main campus building was “an interlocking labyrinth of six-story buildings with a skyscraper at one end.” The architect was one Edward P. Mellon, nephew of Andrew and Richard, who had purchased the land for the school. That inside job was somehow sidelined, and Charles Klauder’s Cathedral of Learning watches over Oakland today. And why did no one ever tell me that my high school, Fox Chapel Area, was the site of an airport, Rodgers Field, from 1924 to 1934? Further, Amelia Earhart once landed there — and foreshadowing a famous Pittsburgh’s characteristic, her plane hit a pothole on the landing field.
“Engineering Pittsburgh” will please civil engineers and those who use their products every day.
This article was taken from The Pittsburgh Quarterly. See the original article.
Engineering Pittsburgh is available for purchase.
Last month, 258 ASCE members from across the country converged on Washington D.C. to take part in the ASCE 2019 Legislative Fly-In. All 50 states, and including D.C. and Puerto Rico, were well represented by ASCE members eager to talk about infrastructure in their regions. Pennsylvania was very well represented with 13 total attendees, including two of our very own from the Pittsburgh Section, Greg Scott and Justin Brooks.
The two-day event kicked off with advocacy training and legislative insights from many notable speakers from Capitol Hill. Senator Tom Carper (D-DE) shared with us his recent sit down with President Trump, and their shared view on needing a path forward on funding for transportation infrastructure. Then Representatives Rodney Davis (R-IL) and Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) spoke to us about the bipartisan work Congress is doing to get a federal infrastructure package put together.
After the advocacy training and speakers, all 258 attendees were sent to Capitol Hill to meet with their Members of Congress and Representatives. Each attendee was given an advocacy packet, containing the 2017 Infrastructure Report Card, issue briefs, and Legislative Priorities. Pennsylvania attendees also brought copies of the PA Infrastructure Report Card (PA Report Card) which was just issued in November 2018.
It was a busy afternoon with more than 320 meetings scheduled over a four-hour period, and most attendees meeting with at least two of their Legislators. We were very fortunate to have beautiful weather in the Capitol this day, which made for great sightseeing between meetings.
This year’s Fly-in focused on ASCE’s three Legislative Priorities for this 116th Congress, as follows.
To stay informed about state and federal level legislation and learn how you can make a difference, become an ASCE Key Contact today.
On December 5, 2018, the Pittsburgh Section Younger Members Forum (YMF) held their annual December Dinner event at Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens in Pittsburgh, PA. Of the 62 members and non-members in attendance 11 students were students. The evening began with a networking hour featuring free professional level headshots. Quality, up-to-date headshots are often undervalued or forgotten by some professionals. However, in this age of information sharing and telecommunication having a polished and professional headshot on-hand makes a good impression; be it within a statement of interest, job application, or award nomination.
Dinner followed the networking hour allowing time for more in depth connections to be formed. Catherine Bazan-Arias began the presentation part of the evening with an introduction to “Engineering Pittsburgh: A History of Roads, Rails, Canals, Bridges and More”, an ASCE Pittsburgh Section publication written by 16 professionals to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of the formation of the ASCE section in Pittsburgh. Ms. Bazan-Arias spoke about the challenges and great rewards that come from undertaking a publication of this type. Without the tools of email, teleconferencing, and other information sharing approaches this project that required the coordination of 16 authors likely would not have been accomplished within the 2 year schedule. Learning how to appropriately use these tools is important to advancing one’s career and the civil engineering profession as a whole.
Following Ms. Bazan-Arias introduction, we were fortunate enough to have two of the 16 authors give a summary of their individual chapters. Sam Shamsi began by speaking on the history and progression of the wastewater collection, conveyance, and treatment in the Allegheny County. The first public drinking water system in Pittsburgh began in 1802. In the 1950s Allegheny County Sanitary Authority (ALCOSAN) wastewater treatment plant was constructed as part of the “Pittsburgh Renaissance”. Now ALCONSAN and Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PSWA) are challenging the traditional wastewater infrastructure of pipes, pumps, and storage tanks by supporting sustainable projects that include rain gardens, green roofs, and porous pavement.
Todd Wilson then shared several before and after pictures of bridges and intersections familiar to the downtown Pittsburgh and Oakland landscape. He explained that some of the odd intersection configurations or topography around Pittsburgh resulted from the previous existence of a bridge or industrial route. He gave tips on how to spot areas where an old bridge has been filled in and/or buried to allow new development on flat ground.
After the presentations, attendees had the opportunity to enjoy the grounds of the beautiful and historic Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, including the winter garden and light show display. Donations of toys for school age children were collected and gifted to The Brashear Association.
The ASCE YMF leaders fervently thank all those who sponsored the event. Our sponsors’ generosity allow the YMF to provide these great networking and learning opportunities to college students and young professionals. Thank you for investing in the future of the civil engineering industry!
Tom Batroney, PE, ASCE Pittsburgh Sustainability Committee Chair
On Wednesday March 6th, 2019 ASCE Pittsburgh will be hosting it's 10th edition of its Sustainability Conference. This year's theme is Smart Cities: Transforming Cities to a New Era.
When you ask a regular citizen what first pops into their head when they hear the words "smart technology" or "artificial intelligence", the answer you will likely hear back is "driverless vehicles" or "Uber". Autonomous vehicles have certainly grabbed most of the attention recently in the headlines, especially after the tragic accident in Arizona last year. Admittedly, autonomous vehicles themselves are attention grabbing and are prominently visible when seen on the roads. Nowhere is this more evident than right here in Pittsburgh being one of the leading test beds on the planet for their development.
But underneath the surface, "smart technology" goes much deeper than just transportation applications. Entire city operations are beginning to find ways to incorporate smart technology that rely on thousands of sensors and artificial intelligence driven computing power. Cities (and even Nations) are considering it a race to become the "smartest" and most technologically advanced as way to attract investors and drive economic growth.
Needless to say, "smart city" is not some throwaway buzz word catchphrase. This is real and forecasted future investment in 2021 is expected to hit $135 billion. Yes, that's with a B.
I ask that you read (or at least skim) the articles linked above. It will provide you an idea of why this topic is so important and why you as a civil engineer should begin to prepare yourself for this changing future or prepare to be left behind. The implications of these technologies are across all civil engineering disciplines and every engineer will likely need to adapt in some fashion.
You may be asking yourself what does "smart cities" have to do with "sustainability"? And the simple answer is people and efficiency. Research is showing that smart technologies are connecting people in new innovative ways and resulting in more efficient energy systems, more efficient water usage, more efficient waste management, more efficient traffic control, more efficient structural assessments. Increased efficiency means reduced pollution and fewer carbon emissions. During this year's conference we are going to be exploring these technologies with leading experts and learn how smart technologies are at the beginning stages of impacting the Pittsburgh region. ASCE Pittsburgh is once again partnering with Sustainable Pittsburgh and the City of Pittsburgh Mayor Peduto's office. We are also bringing in as a partner Carnegie Mellon's Metro21: Smart Cities Institute, one of the leading research institutes in the world on this highly evolving subject.
You as an engineer should consider registering and attending the conference to learn about how your profession is on the brink of experiencing a revolutionary sea change in the very near future.
For more information on the conference and how to register please visit: http://www.asce-pgh.org/event-3254280
By Joao “Jay” Pereira, PhD, PE, and Charles “Chuck” Lanigan
Compared to ASCE, Engineers without Borders USA (EWB-USA) is a new kid on the block. Organized in 2002 by Dr. Bernard Amadei, a world renowned civil geotechnical engineer, EWB-USA harnesses the skills of engineers to tackle the challenges that keep the world’s poorest people from living healthy, productive lives. The Pittsburgh professional chapter (EWB-PPC), established in 2008, is one of nearly 500 chapters around the country.
ASCE partners with EWB-USA and contributes more than $100,000 annually to the organization. The two organizations collaborate on several programs including The Community Engineering Corps, an alliance of EWB-USA, ASCE and the American Water Works Association. According to EWB-USA, this program unites more than 200,000 technical professionals and students in designing engineering solutions for underserved communities in the U.S.
The ASCE Pittsburgh Section (ASCE-PGH) helps sponsor the EWB Pittsburgh professional chapter with a contribution of $500 annually. A number of EWB-PPC members belong to both ASCE and EWB local chapters, and many aspects of the groups’ missions overlap. ASCE-PGH funding helps support EWB-PPC’s current water treatment and delivery project in Curingue, Ecuador, as well as our local Hilltop Men’s Association Sustainable Farmhouse Project.
ASCE-Pittsburgh not only supports and funds the local EWB projects, our members and officers also participate in those projects. Sam Shamsi, current President-Elect was the founder and mentor for an EWB-CMU project in India during 2010-2012; Cathy Bazan-Arias, 2015-16 President was a mentor for the EWB-PPC / EWB-Pitt joint project in Mali (Africa) and for the EWB-PPC / EWB-CMU joint Emerald Park project in Mt. Washington, Pittsburgh.
EWB-PPC’s membership includes professionals with backgrounds in civil, nuclear and electrical engineering. The chapter also enlists volunteer efforts of non-engineers from fields such as healthcare and education. Pittsburgh chapter members range in age from 20 to more than 60 years old and come from across the country and the world including Oregon and Florida, Portugal, Spain, El Salvador, Mexico, India, and the UK.
Involvement in EWB-PPC projects gives members opportunities for mentorship and learning, and to gain invaluable hours of professional experience. The EWB-USA $100/year membership is discounted to $35/year for ASCE national members. EWB helps engineers become better-rounded practitioners through collaboration with professionals of different backgrounds. Participation in projects and tasks outside of their field of expertise allows cross-training among volunteers. Recent opportunities include the use of surveying instruments and basic HeartSaver first aid field certification through the University of Pittsburgh.
The University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University both sponsor EWB student chapters. This support provides students the opportunity to gain hands-on experience with seasoned professionals who bring a wealth of experience and dedication.
Roger Lee Price, who recently retired from Penn State Outreach, says of his involvement with EWB-PPC, “I have been meeting and working with a great group of young engineers during the initial stages of an exciting project to provide safe drinking water for a community located in Ecuador. During March 2017, I completed an awesome, highly successful one month assignment working on a project performed in support of the EWB Engineering Service Corps-USAID Farmer-to-Farmer Program in Kosovo.”
Following his retirement, Dennis Mialki uses the engineering and project management skills gained over a lifetime to improve the lives of others. His most recent project with EWB has allowed him to add Ecuador to the list of countries where he has had the privilege to work.
Emily Eichner, a practicing civil engineer who formerly acted as EWB-PPC’s liaison to ASCE, came to Pittsburgh from the EWB Portland Chapter. She says her EWB involvement has helped her grow professionally. Says Emily, “[EWB] has allowed me to work on an entire project start to finish, concept plan to design to construction. It is rare that a ‘regular job’ will have room for employees to work on so many different aspects of a project. [EWB] helps its volunteers learn and understand the engineering process more thoroughly.”
Similiarly, Mike Krepsik is a civil geotechnical engineer who serves on ASCE’s Continuing Education Committee. He was heavily involved with EWB in Florida before serving as a reviewer for one of the Pittsburgh professional chapter’s projects in Ecuador. Mike says his experience volunteering with EWB, “…Provided me with leadership, management, and design opportunities during the early stages of my career. As a young engineer, working with EWB thrust me into these roles, providing the experience I needed to manage small projects. My experience translated into an earlier promotion to a project manager role.”
Although a volunteer organization, EWB-PPC relies partly on fundraising and grants such as those ASCE provides to pay for travel and materials. Recent fundraising efforts include Whiskey for Water and golf outings that support the current clean water project in Curingue, which will supply potable water to a community 12,000 feet (3,657 meters) in the Andes. Residents currently trek 250 meters each way daily to carry water from a spring that was found to contain e. coli contamination. The project team and community members secured funding, completed a survey, and excavated and poured concrete for the pumphouse. Project manager Ken Hornfeck says, “That community has inspired me in countless ways with their dedication, work ethic, selflessness, and continual demonstration of contentment and optimism. It is that spirit that drives me and our project team.”
EWB participates only on projects where its assistance is requested. Projects are subject to standard engineering practices and Professional Engineer (PE) oversight, and not all projects are accepted. The chapter often collaborates with other local groups in addition to ASCE. For example, EWB-PPC is partnering with the Hilltop Men’s Group in on the Sustainable Farmhouse project in Pittsburgh’s Beltzhoover neighborhood. The project will use solar energy, recaptured rainwater, and green design to build community meeting place and grow fresh produce. Additionally, a new Wilkinsburg project is underway in partnership with Community Forge, where EWB will help replace retaining walls and redesign the play area. Lastly, the Esser Plaza Revitalization project in the South Side is entering its final design and is expected to be constructed in the Summer of 2019.
Although the engineering experience EWB-PPC volunteers gain participating in the design, field data collection, and construction phases of projects is invaluable, EWB-PPC strives additionally to see the work done by its members count toward Professional Development Hours (PDH). EWB provides technical experience on diverse engineering projects around the world. EWB-PPC chapter members work in different states and countries and become familiar with a variety of engineering regulation, standards, and practices that help them become well rounded professionals.
Links with further information:
Engineers Without Borders USA: https://www.ewb-usa.org/
Engineers Without Borders - Pittsburgh Professional Chapter: https://www.ewb-pitt.org/
Engineers Without Borders – Carnegie Mellon University Student Chapter: https://pittewb.wordpress.com/
Engineers Without Borders – University of Pittsburgh Student Chapter: https://pittewb.wordpress.com/
By Cathy Bazan-Arias
In 1876 the United States of America turned 100. Likely, several celebrations were held, good cheer went around, and then it was back to “business as usual”. Or perhaps not: many other outstanding achievements were still coming our way. And, gratefully, people continued to work dutifully on another great century, which was celebrated in 1976.
Similarly, our ASCE Pittsburgh Section just celebrated our 100th Anniversary and we strove to hold a memorable Celebration and publish a worthy Publication to mark our first centennial. But more is to come! Developments that we can only imagine – for civil engineering and Pittsburgh. Thus, now that the centennial festivities are past, our ASCE Pittsburgh Section is back to our “routine”: busily and strategically coordinating, managing and promoting events, activities, and networking. We must! It’s the foundation of the next century’s achievements!
Please continue to contribute to our Section’s achievements. The foundation and infrastructure that has made our Section the award-winning organization we just celebrated was built on your participation, your ideas made reality, and your commitment to sharing experience, knowledge, resources and creativity with colleagues, students and the public.
As we start on a new century, the Section aims to provide opportunities from professional development and participation based on our understanding of the needs and requests of our members. These valuable input is only possible through your communication with us: at technical seminars, holiday gatherings, mailings, or – even better – by joining our Board and Committees. (More on this latter point in the next few weeks).
On behalf of the Centennial Celebration and Publication Task Committees: *thank you* for a great century. Here’s to the next one being even better!
Special gratitude to the Giants in our profession that provided the shoulders that several of us stepped on including – among many worthy others – Mr. Michael A. Gross, Dr. Elio D’Appolonia, Dr. Larry Cartwright and Dr. Alfred Ackenheil. Dr. Ackenheil is also our “Centennial Member” having turned 101 in October of this year.
By: Carolyn Wehner
The Pittsburgh Geo Institute Chapter opened the 2018-2019 program year on September 27th at ESWP with the presentation “Emergency Rock Slide Stabilization with Shear Pins: Design, Construction, the Media” by Sebastian Lobo-Guerrero, Ph.D. P.E. The presentation covered the emergency response to stabilize a massive rock slide in Central Pennsylvania that was endangering a shopping plaza, a gas line, and electrical utilities located at its toe. The potential impact to these features made quick action to fix the slide critical. Due to the threat, the project received significant media attention that played both a positive and negative role in the project.
The permanent remediation of the landslide involved the design and construction of shear pins (uncased micropiles). The remediation involved partial top down excavation of the landslide. This excavation removed the top portion of the landslide mass to unload the slope. The material removed was used to construct a buttress to provide temporary support of the slope until shear pins could be installed. The shear pins were installed to cut off the landslide slip plane.
The presenter, Sebastian Lobo-Guerrero Ph.D., P.E., is currently a project manager and laboratory manager at American Geotechnical and Environmental Services’s (A.G.E.S.) Pittsburgh, PA headquarters. Sebastian has more than 16 years of experience as a geotechnical engineer and has authored more than 40 technical papers published in scientific journals, geotechnical magazines, and conference proceedings worldwide. He is a former chair of the Pittsburgh G-I chapter, and a former Director of the ASCE Pittsburgh Section.
In addition to the technical presentation, the incoming G-I Chapter Chair, Greg Braun, P.E., introduced the 2018-2019 Pittsburgh G-I Chapter board members and highlighted the program year. The Geo Institute’s new board members along with upcoming G-I dinner meetings can be viewed on the Chapter’s webpage.
A Message from ASCE-Pittsburgh President-Elect Sam Shamsi
On the evening of September 22, as I was celebrating ASCE-Pittsburgh’s 100th Anniversary at the beautiful Hotel Manco in downtown Pittsburgh, my mind was contemplating a safe time to depart for another important ASCE event in Reston, Virginia. I wanted to have sufficient time to rest but not miss a 10 A.M. round-table discussion on the potential challenges faced by incoming Section Presidents. I ended up resting for five hours before a 5 AM departure for ASCE PGF 2018.
On September 23-24, 2018, 103 Section and Branch Presidents, Region Governors and Society Directors from across the country and abroad attended the annual Presidents and Governors Forum (PGF) in Reston, VA at ASCE Headquarters. This event was organized and moderated by the Leader Training Committee (LTC) and provided opportunities for attendees to learn about ASCE resources, network with other ASCE leaders, and gain useful training that would benefit their Sections and Branches.
The purpose of the PGF is to provide a venue for current Section/Branch President-Elects and Region Leaders to gain the knowledge to effectively and efficiently run their local units. The conference provides an opportunity for attendees to network and brainstorm with each other, gain leadership skills, learn about ASCE resources from other ASCE volunteers and staff and discuss Best Practices to take back to your Section/Branch. Networking receptions were held on both Saturday and Sunday, with a group dinner on Sunday attended by most of the conference attendees.
On Sunday, topics included an Introduction to your Presidency and How to Utilize your Governors; an Introduction to Region 10; Roundtable Discussions on Section and Branch Challenges; and How to Be A Great Leader at Work and in ASCE. Seasoned ASCE leaders spoke about their experiences with Social Media and Student Transition Activities in their Section and Branch. President Kristina Swallow, President-Elect Robin Kemper, and Executive Director Tom Smith also shared their thoughts and experiences. Monday continued with additional Best Practice sessions on Struggling Sections and Branches, Developing a State Infrastructure Report Card, Attracting Younger Members through Diversity Programs, Student Transition, and Successful Section and Branch Operations. The program continued with a presentation on Legal issues for Sections and Branches and an update on Dream Big, followed by a competitive game of JeopardASCE. Closing remarks were made by President-Elect Elect Kancheepuram Gunalan (Guna).
My favorite part of the meeting was a guided tour of rather modest Headquarters building. I downloaded the GroupMe Social Media App for event announcements but was eventually annoyed by the large number of notifications as other members were joining or leaving the group. I showed our hot off the press 100th Anniversary “Engineering Pittsburgh” book to organizers and attendees and was asked to submit a report for the section/Branch Best Practices Guide. After two solid days spent with ASCE, I left with some new knowledge that will help me next year as the ASCE-Pittsburgh Section President. I gained a better understanding of the National resources available to the Section. I think this meeting should be mandatory for all incoming Branch and Section Presidents and Region Governors.
ASCE President, Kristina L. Swallow, P.E., ENV SP, F.ASCE was in Pittsburgh on the night of September 22 to join our 100th Anniversary celebrations. Like me, she too had to be in ASCE Headquarters next morning for PGF 2018. I arrived before her despite the fact she took a flight whereas I drove. I promise I was not speeding!
For more information about the PGF, please visit LTC’s new website.
Sam Shamsi, PhD, PE, F.ASCE
By Jodi S. Klebick, ASCE Pittsburgh Section Publicity & Public Relations Chair
After two years of planning, and more than a century in the making, the Pittsburgh Section of ASCE held its once-in-a-lifetime 100th anniversary celebration event at the Hotel Monaco on Saturday, September 22, 2018.
With almost 200 members and guests in attendance, Section past president Pat Sullivan kept the crowd engaged as Master of Ceremonies as everyone enjoyed entertainment by Pittsburgh’s Boilermaker Jazz Band and outstanding food stations provided by The Commoner. The party featured a special social media hashtag, “#ascepgh100”, and a centennial book launch and book signing by the civil engineers and professionals that co-authored the Section’s 2018 commemorative anniversary publication, “Engineering Pittsburgh: A History of Roads, Rails, Canals, Bridges & More”. The publication aims to record some of southwestern Pennsylvania’s engineering and infrastructure challenges and triumphs.
Memorable moments included a Proclamation by the Mayor of the City of Pittsburgh William Peduto, and remarks from current ASCE National President Kristina Swallow and former ASCE National President Andrew Herrmann. Pittsburgh Section Past Presidents and Life Members were also acknowledged for their contributions to the growth, achievements and award-winning standing of the Section. The section was further pleased to thank all of the celebration sponsors by presenting each of them with a commemorative plaque. The entire crowd joined in singing “Happy Birthday” as Section President Robert Dengler and National President Swallow cut the custom cake creation from the legendary Prantl’s Bakery. This joyous moment was followed by a “Celebration Selfie” – a group photo with as many party goers as could fit!
Attendees had the unique opportunity to contribute historic photos, articles, small instruments or devices, videos, books, letters to the future leadership of ASCE, along with engineering “doodads or trinkets” to be placed in a special 100th anniversary time capsule. The capsule will be sealed and stored at the Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania (ESWP) to be re-opened at the 200th ASCE Pittsburgh Section Celebration in 2118.
The 100th Celebration Subcommittee also held a centerpiece design competition among the Section’s Institutes, Committees, YMF and Student Chapters. The winning centerpiece was selected by our gala guests’ popular vote and the winning design was that created by the University of Pittsburgh Main Campus (Pitt) Student Chapter. The ambassadors of the Pitt Student Chapter received a $500 prize sponsored by the Section. Guests were further treated to a 50/50 raffle and door prizes provided by local firms AECOM, DiGioia Gray, and Williams.
Special recognition was given during the event to the 100th Celebration Subcommittee dynamic trio who gave their time, experience and boundless energy to plan, manage and execute the massive undertaking and made the evening a success: Lauren E. Terpak, Angela Mayer, and Sara Mullaney. *Thank you*, ladies!
Our Section is duly grateful to each person who contributed to the event’s success: a night to remember- 100 years from now!
By Nemi Vora, edited by Ben Briston
The fourth annual “Imagine a Day Without Water” water awareness day took place on Wednesday, October 10, 2018. The Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Pittsburgh Section, once again joined the effort to raise awareness about how water is essential, invaluable, and worthy of investment.
The Pittsburgh region has been experiencing above average high-intensity rainfall events, so it may be difficult to imagine a day without water. Though our region may be water rich, we are using more water than we think, albeit indirectly. We consume water from all over the country and the world through the products and services we use. A standard (1.5 oz) chocolate bar requires on average 197 gallons of water to produce; a large egg requires around 52 gallons of water, and 1 lb of beef requires on average 1,847 gallons of water. [1, 2] In fact, an average American uses 750 thousand gallons of water as part of the goods and services consumed over a year, and, of the water we consume, 20% comes from products produced outside the U.S.A., mainly China.
Imaging a day without water can be difficult in Pittsburgh due to more frequent, intense rainfall events, but it is essential to recognize our reliance on water outside of this region. We are indeed connected to the world through the products we consume and should be conscious of the fact that the places that produce these goods face water scarcity. Next time you buy a product, look at the packaging to see where it's coming from. Doing so may help to reduce over-consumption and waste of water.
1. Mekonnen, M.M. and A.Y. Hoekstra, The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2011. 15(5): p. 1577-1600.
2. Mekonnen, M. and A. Hoekstra, The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products. 2010.
3. Mekonnen, M. and A.Y. Hoekstra, National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption. 2011.